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Installiamo e configuriamo un Raspberry per farlo diventare una vera e propria videocamera di sorveglianza.
Premessa:
  1. possedere un Raspberry con un'installazione di Raspbian su SD card (per istruzioni clicca qui)
  2. possedere un modulo cam (noir o ir)

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Passo 1 - Configurazione iniziale
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Installazione parte Hardware scheda
Videocamera raspberry - installazione 01
Videocamera raspberry - installazione 02

Riguardo l'installazione hardware, nulla da dire se non seguire le connessioni proposte nelle immagini qua sopra, inserendo il flat correttamente nel connettore del nostro Raspberry.

Configurazione OS e software Raspberry
  • Inizializzazione camera e modulo
Come consigliato da Raspbian, checcare, tramite raspi-config, il support per videocamera. Testare poi il corretto funzionamento seguendo i passi descritti nel secondo e terzo link proposti qui sotto:

https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/usage/camera/README.md
https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/usage/camera/raspicam/README.md
https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/usage/camera/python/README.md

Piccola nota personale; il mio modello di card è ir (foto sotto) quindi ho dovuto caricare un modulo ulteriore (altrimenti non trovavo il device in /dev/video0):

sudo modprobe bcm2835-v4l2



Raspicam03

Inseriamo il modulo in /etc/rc.local per far sì che sia caricato al boot:

#!/bin/sh -e
#
# rc.local
#
# This script is executed at the end of each multiuser runlevel.
# Make sure that the script will "exit 0" on success or any other
# value on error.
#
# In order to enable or disable this script just change the execution
# bits.
#
# By default this script does nothing.
modprobe bcm2835-v4l2
# Print the IP address
_IP=$(hostname -I) || true
if [ "$_IP" ]; then
  printf "My IP address is %s\n" "$_IP"
fi

exit 0


  • Installazione software motion

Il software motion ci consentirà di gestire la videocamera in toto, vi rimando al link per ulteriori info.
http://www.lavrsen.dk/foswiki/bin/view/Motion/WebHome

Da shell installiamo motion con il comando:

sudo apt-get install motion



Modifichiamo il file /etc/default/motion per far partire motion in modalità demone:

sudo nano /etc/default/motion



# set to 'yes' to enable the motion daemon
start_motion_daemon=yes


Modifichiamo il file di conf. Ho impostato, oltre alla risoluzione, agli fps (5), la possibilità di connettersi sulla porta 8081 per vedere la livecam, il salvataggio dei soli filmati avi senza snapshot, salvandoli su una chiavetta usb connessa al raspberry (non voglio essere vincolato alla rete, posso così usarla anche senza connessione disponibile):

sudo nano /etc/motion/motion.conf



Di seguito quello il file di conf (in grassetto le mie modifiche):

# Rename this distribution example file to motion.conf
#
# This config file was generated by motion 3.2.12+git20140228


############################################################
# Daemon
############################################################

# Start in daemon (background) mode and release terminal (default: off)
daemon on

# File to store the process ID, also called pid file. (default: not defined)
process_id_file /var/run/motion/motion.pid

############################################################
# Basic Setup Mode
############################################################

# Start in Setup-Mode, daemon disabled. (default: off)
setup_mode off


# Use a file to save logs messages, if not defined stderr and syslog is used. (default: not defined)
logfile /tmp/motion.log

# Level of log messages [1..9] (EMR, ALR, CRT, ERR, WRN, NTC, INF, DBG, ALL). (default: 6 / NTC)
log_level 6

# Filter to log messages by type (COR, STR, ENC, NET, DBL, EVT, TRK, VID, ALL). (default: ALL)
log_type all

###########################################################
# Capture device options
############################################################

# Videodevice to be used for capturing  (default /dev/video0)
# for FreeBSD default is /dev/bktr0
videodevice /dev/video0

# v4l2_palette allows to choose preferable palette to be use by motion
# to capture from those supported by your videodevice. (default: 17)
# E.g. if your videodevice supports both V4L2_PIX_FMT_SBGGR8 and
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_MJPEG then motion will by default use V4L2_PIX_FMT_MJPEG.
# Setting v4l2_palette to 2 forces motion to use V4L2_PIX_FMT_SBGGR8
# instead.
#
# Values :
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SN9C10X : 0  'S910'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SBGGR16 : 1  'BYR2'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SBGGR8  : 2  'BA81'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SPCA561 : 3  'S561'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SGBRG8  : 4  'GBRG'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SGRBG8  : 5  'GRBG'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_PAC207  : 6  'P207'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_PJPG    : 7  'PJPG'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_MJPEG   : 8  'MJPEG'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_JPEG    : 9  'JPEG'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_RGB24   : 10 'RGB3'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SPCA501 : 11 'S501'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SPCA505 : 12 'S505'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_SPCA508 : 13 'S508'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_UYVY    : 14 'UYVY'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUYV    : 15 'YUYV'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV422P : 16 '422P'
# V4L2_PIX_FMT_YUV420  : 17 'YU12'
#
v4l2_palette 17

# Tuner device to be used for capturing using tuner as source (default /dev/tuner0)
# This is ONLY used for FreeBSD. Leave it commented out for Linux
; tunerdevice /dev/tuner0

# The video input to be used (default: -1)
# Should normally be set to 0 or 1 for video/TV cards, and -1 for USB cameras
input -1

# The video norm to use (only for video capture and TV tuner cards)
# Values: 0 (PAL), 1 (NTSC), 2 (SECAM), 3 (PAL NC no colour). Default: 0 (PAL)
norm 0

# The frequency to set the tuner to (kHz) (only for TV tuner cards) (default: 0)
frequency 0

# Rotate image this number of degrees. The rotation affects all saved images as
# well as movies. Valid values: 0 (default = no rotation), 90, 180 and 270.
rotate 0

# Image width (pixels). Valid range: Camera dependent, default: 352
width 640

# Image height (pixels). Valid range: Camera dependent, default: 288
height 480

# Maximum number of frames to be captured per second.
# Valid range: 2-100. Default: 100 (almost no limit).
framerate 5

# Minimum time in seconds between capturing picture frames from the camera.
# Default: 0 = disabled - the capture rate is given by the camera framerate.
# This option is used when you want to capture images at a rate lower than 2 per second.
minimum_frame_time 0

# URL to use if you are using a network camera, size will be autodetected (incl http:// ftp:// mjpg:// rstp:// or file:///)
# Must be a URL that returns single jpeg pictures or a raw mjpeg stream. Default: Not defined
; netcam_url value

# Username and password for network camera (only if required). Default: not defined
# Syntax is user:password
; netcam_userpass value

# The setting for keep-alive of network socket, should improve performance on compatible net cameras.
# off:   The historical implementation using HTTP/1.0, closing the socket after each http request.
# force: Use HTTP/1.0 requests with keep alive header to reuse the same connection.
# on:    Use HTTP/1.1 requests that support keep alive as default.
# Default: off
netcam_keepalive off

# URL to use for a netcam proxy server, if required, e.g. "http://myproxy".
# If a port number other than 80 is needed, use "http://myproxy:1234".
# Default: not defined
; netcam_proxy value

# Set less strict jpeg checks for network cameras with a poor/buggy firmware.
# Default: off
netcam_tolerant_check off

# Let motion regulate the brightness of a video device (default: off).
# The auto_brightness feature uses the brightness option as its target value.
# If brightness is zero auto_brightness will adjust to average brightness value 128.
# Only recommended for cameras without auto brightness
auto_brightness off

# Set the initial brightness of a video device.
# If auto_brightness is enabled, this value defines the average brightness level
# which Motion will try and adjust to.
# Valid range 0-255, default 0 = disabled
brightness 128

# Set the contrast of a video device.
# Valid range 0-255, default 0 = disabled
contrast 0

# Set the saturation of a video device.
# Valid range 0-255, default 0 = disabled
saturation 0

# Set the hue of a video device (NTSC feature).
# Valid range 0-255, default 0 = disabled
hue 0


############################################################
# Round Robin (multiple inputs on same video device name)
############################################################

# Number of frames to capture in each roundrobin step (default: 1)
roundrobin_frames 1

# Number of frames to skip before each roundrobin step (default: 1)
roundrobin_skip 1

# Try to filter out noise generated by roundrobin (default: off)
switchfilter off


############################################################
# Motion Detection Settings:
############################################################

# Threshold for number of changed pixels in an image that
# triggers motion detection (default: 1500)
threshold 1500

# Automatically tune the threshold down if possible (default: off)
threshold_tune off

# Noise threshold for the motion detection (default: 32)
noise_level 32

# Automatically tune the noise threshold (default: on)
noise_tune on

# Despeckle motion image using (e)rode or (d)ilate or (l)abel (Default: not defined)
# Recommended value is EedDl. Any combination (and number of) of E, e, d, and D is valid.
# (l)abeling must only be used once and the 'l' must be the last letter.
# Comment out to disable
despeckle_filter EedDl

# Detect motion in predefined areas (1 - 9). Areas are numbered like that:  1 2 3
# A script (on_area_detected) is started immediately when motion is         4 5 6
# detected in one of the given areas, but only once during an event.        7 8 9
# One or more areas can be specified with this option. Take care: This option
# does NOT restrict detection to these areas! (Default: not defined)
; area_detect value

# PGM file to use as a sensitivity mask.
# Full path name to. (Default: not defined)
; mask_file value

# Dynamically create a mask file during operation (default: 0)
# Adjust speed of mask changes from 0 (off) to 10 (fast)
smart_mask_speed 0

# Ignore sudden massive light intensity changes given as a percentage of the picture
# area that changed intensity. Valid range: 0 - 100 , default: 0 = disabled
lightswitch 0

# Picture frames must contain motion at least the specified number of frames
# in a row before they are detected as true motion. At the default of 1, all
# motion is detected. Valid range: 1 to thousands, recommended 1-5
minimum_motion_frames 1

# Specifies the number of pre-captured (buffered) pictures from before motion
# was detected that will be output at motion detection.
# Recommended range: 0 to 5 (default: 0)
# Do not use large values! Large values will cause Motion to skip video frames and
# cause unsmooth movies. To smooth movies use larger values of post_capture instead.
pre_capture 5

# Number of frames to capture after motion is no longer detected (default: 0)
post_capture 5

# Event Gap is the seconds of no motion detection that triggers the end of an event.
# An event is defined as a series of motion images taken within a short timeframe.
# Recommended value is 60 seconds (Default). The value -1 is allowed and disables
# events causing all Motion to be written to one single movie file and no pre_capture.
# If set to 0, motion is running in gapless mode. Movies don't have gaps anymore. An
# event ends right after no more motion is detected and post_capture is over.
event_gap 60

# Maximum length in seconds of a movie
# When value is exceeded a new movie file is created. (Default: 0 = infinite)
max_movie_time 0

# Always save images even if there was no motion (default: off)
emulate_motion off


############################################################
# Image File Output
############################################################

# Output 'normal' pictures when motion is detected (default: on)
# Valid values: on, off, first, best, center
# When set to 'first', only the first picture of an event is saved.
# Picture with most motion of an event is saved when set to 'best'.
# Picture with motion nearest center of picture is saved when set to 'center'.
# Can be used as preview shot for the corresponding movie.
output_pictures off

# Output pictures with only the pixels moving object (ghost images) (default: off)
output_debug_pictures off

# The quality (in percent) to be used by the jpeg compression (default: 75)
quality 100

# Type of output images
# Valid values: jpeg, ppm (default: jpeg)
picture_type jpeg

############################################################
# FFMPEG related options
# Film (movies) file output, and deinterlacing of the video input
# The options movie_filename and timelapse_filename are also used
# by the ffmpeg feature
############################################################

# Use ffmpeg to encode movies in realtime (default: off)
ffmpeg_output_movies on

# Use ffmpeg to make movies with only the pixels moving
# object (ghost images) (default: off)
ffmpeg_output_debug_movies off

# Use ffmpeg to encode a timelapse movie
# Default value 0 = off - else save frame every Nth second
ffmpeg_timelapse 0

# The file rollover mode of the timelapse video
# Valid values: hourly, daily (default), weekly-sunday, weekly-monday, monthly, manual
ffmpeg_timelapse_mode daily

# Bitrate to be used by the ffmpeg encoder (default: 400000)
# This option is ignored if ffmpeg_variable_bitrate is not 0 (disabled)
ffmpeg_bps 500000

# Enables and defines variable bitrate for the ffmpeg encoder.
# ffmpeg_bps is ignored if variable bitrate is enabled.
# Valid values: 0 (default) = fixed bitrate defined by ffmpeg_bps,
# or the range 2 - 31 where 2 means best quality and 31 is worst.
ffmpeg_variable_bitrate 0

# Codec to used by ffmpeg for the video compression.
# Timelapse mpegs are always made in mpeg1 format independent from this option.
# Supported formats are: mpeg1 (ffmpeg-0.4.8 only), mpeg4 (default), and msmpeg4.
# mpeg1 - gives you files with extension .mpg
# mpeg4 or msmpeg4 - gives you files with extension .avi
# msmpeg4 is recommended for use with Windows Media Player because
# it requires no installation of codec on the Windows client.
# swf - gives you a flash film with extension .swf
# flv - gives you a flash video with extension .flv
# ffv1 - FF video codec 1 for Lossless Encoding ( experimental )
# mov - QuickTime ( testing )
# ogg - Ogg/Theora ( testing )
ffmpeg_video_codec msmpeg4

# Use ffmpeg to deinterlace video. Necessary if you use an analog camera
# and see horizontal combing on moving objects in video or pictures.
# (default: off)
ffmpeg_deinterlace off

############################################################
# SDL Window
############################################################

# Number of motion thread to show in SDL Window (default: 0 = disabled)
sdl_threadnr 0

############################################################
# External pipe to video encoder
# Replacement for FFMPEG builtin encoder for ffmpeg_output_movies only.
# The options movie_filename and timelapse_filename are also used
# by the ffmpeg feature
#############################################################

# Bool to enable or disable extpipe (default: off)
use_extpipe off

# External program (full path and opts) to pipe raw video to
# Generally, use '-' for STDIN...
#extpipe mencoder -demuxer rawvideo -rawvideo w=320:h=240:i420 -vf denoise3d=16:12:48:4,pp=lb -of   avi -o %f.avi - -fps %fps
#extpipe mencoder -demuxer rawvideo -rawvideo w=320:h=240:i420 -ovc x264 -x264encopts bframes=4:frameref=1:subq=1:scenecut=-1:nob_adapt:threads=1:keyint=1000:8x8dct:vbv_bufsize=4000:crf=24:partitions=i8x8,i4x4:vbv_maxrate=800:no-chroma-me -vf denoise3d=16:12:48:4,pp=lb -of   avi -o %f.avi - -fps %fps



############################################################
# Snapshots (Traditional Periodic Webcam File Output)
############################################################

# Make automated snapshot every N seconds (default: 0 = disabled)
snapshot_interval 0


############################################################
# Text Display
# %Y = year, %m = month, %d = date,
# %H = hour, %M = minute, %S = second, %T = HH:MM:SS,
# %v = event, %q = frame number, %t = thread (camera) number,
# %D = changed pixels, %N = noise level, \n = new line,
# %i and %J = width and height of motion area,
# %K and %L = X and Y coordinates of motion center
# %C = value defined by text_event - do not use with text_event!
# You can put quotation marks around the text to allow
# leading spaces
############################################################

# Locate and draw a box around the moving object.
# Valid values: on, off, preview (default: off)
# Set to 'preview' will only draw a box in preview_shot pictures.
locate_motion_mode off

# Set the look and style of the locate box if enabled.
# Valid values: box, redbox, cross, redcross (default: box)
# Set to 'box' will draw the traditional box.
# Set to 'redbox' will draw a red box.
# Set to 'cross' will draw a little cross to mark center.
# Set to 'redcross' will draw a little red cross to mark center.
locate_motion_style box

# Draws the timestamp using same options as C function strftime(3)
# Default: %Y-%m-%d\n%T = date in ISO format and time in 24 hour clock
# Text is placed in lower right corner
text_right %Y-%m-%d\n%T-%q

# Draw a user defined text on the images using same options as C function strftime(3)
# Default: Not defined = no text
# Text is placed in lower left corner
text_left Dharma Network

# Draw the number of changed pixed on the images (default: off)
# Will normally be set to off except when you setup and adjust the motion settings
# Text is placed in upper right corner
text_changes off

# This option defines the value of the special event conversion specifier %C
# You can use any conversion specifier in this option except %C. Date and time
# values are from the timestamp of the first image in the current event.
# Default: %Y%m%d%H%M%S
# The idea is that %C can be used filenames and text_left/right for creating
# a unique identifier for each event.
text_event %Y%m%d%H%M%S

# Draw characters at twice normal size on images. (default: off)
text_double off


# Text to include in a JPEG EXIF comment
# May be any text, including conversion specifiers.
# The EXIF timestamp is included independent of this text.
;exif_text %i%J/%K%L

############################################################
# Target Directories and filenames For Images And Films
# For the options snapshot_, picture_, movie_ and timelapse_filename
# you can use conversion specifiers
# %Y = year, %m = month, %d = date,
# %H = hour, %M = minute, %S = second,
# %v = event, %q = frame number, %t = thread (camera) number,
# %D = changed pixels, %N = noise level,
# %i and %J = width and height of motion area,
# %K and %L = X and Y coordinates of motion center
# %C = value defined by text_event
# Quotation marks round string are allowed.
############################################################

# Target base directory for pictures and films
# Recommended to use absolute path. (Default: current working directory)
#target_dir /mnt/arrow/Videosorveglianza

target_dir /mnt/usb/Videosorveglianza

# File path for snapshots (jpeg or ppm) relative to target_dir
# Default: %v-%Y%m%d%H%M%S-snapshot
# Default value is equivalent to legacy oldlayout option
# For Motion 3.0 compatible mode choose: %Y/%m/%d/%H/%M/%S-snapshot
# File extension .jpg or .ppm is automatically added so do not include this.
# Note: A symbolic link called lastsnap.jpg created in the target_dir will always
# point to the latest snapshot, unless snapshot_filename is exactly 'lastsnap'
snapshot_filename %v-%Y%m%d%H%M%S-snapshot

# File path for motion triggered images (jpeg or ppm) relative to target_dir
# Default: %v-%Y%m%d%H%M%S-%q
# Default value is equivalent to legacy oldlayout option
# For Motion 3.0 compatible mode choose: %Y/%m/%d/%H/%M/%S-%q
# File extension .jpg or .ppm is automatically added so do not include this
# Set to 'preview' together with best-preview feature enables special naming
# convention for preview shots. See motion guide for details
picture_filename %v-%Y%m%d%H%M%S-%q

# File path for motion triggered ffmpeg films (movies) relative to target_dir
# Default: %v-%Y%m%d%H%M%S
# Default value is equivalent to legacy oldlayout option
# For Motion 3.0 compatible mode choose: %Y/%m/%d/%H%M%S
# File extension .mpg or .avi is automatically added so do not include this
# This option was previously called ffmpeg_filename
movie_filename %v-%Y%m%d%H%M%S

# File path for timelapse movies relative to target_dir
# Default: %Y%m%d-timelapse
# Default value is near equivalent to legacy oldlayout option
# For Motion 3.0 compatible mode choose: %Y/%m/%d-timelapse
# File extension .mpg is automatically added so do not include this
timelapse_filename %Y%m%d-timelapse

############################################################
# Global Network Options
############################################################
# Enable or disable IPV6 for http control and stream (default: off )
ipv6_enabled off

############################################################
# Live Stream Server
############################################################

# The mini-http server listens to this port for requests (default: 0 = disabled)
stream_port 8081

# Quality of the jpeg (in percent) images produced (default: 50)
stream_quality 50

# Output frames at 1 fps when no motion is detected and increase to the
# rate given by stream_maxrate when motion is detected (default: off)
stream_motion off

# Maximum framerate for stream streams (default: 1)
stream_maxrate 1

# Restrict stream connections to localhost only (default: on)
stream_localhost off

# Limits the number of images per connection (default: 0 = unlimited)
# Number can be defined by multiplying actual stream rate by desired number of seconds
# Actual stream rate is the smallest of the numbers framerate and stream_maxrate
stream_limit 0

# Set the authentication method (default: 0)
# 0 = disabled
# 1 = Basic authentication
# 2 = MD5 digest (the safer authentication)
stream_auth_method 0

# Authentication for the stream. Syntax username:password
# Default: not defined (Disabled)
; stream_authentication username:password


############################################################
# HTTP Based Control
############################################################

# TCP/IP port for the http server to listen on (default: 0 = disabled)
webcontrol_port 8080

# Restrict control connections to localhost only (default: on)
webcontrol_localhost on

# Output for http server, select off to choose raw text plain (default: on)
webcontrol_html_output on

# Authentication for the http based control. Syntax username:password
# Default: not defined (Disabled)
; webcontrol_authentication username:password


############################################################
# Tracking (Pan/Tilt)
#############################################################

# Type of tracker (0=none (default), 1=stepper, 2=iomojo, 3=pwc, 4=generic, 5=uvcvideo, 6=servo)
# The generic type enables the definition of motion center and motion size to
# be used with the conversion specifiers for options like on_motion_detected
track_type 0

# Enable auto tracking (default: off)
track_auto off

# Serial port of motor (default: none)
;track_port /dev/ttyS0

# Motor number for x-axis (default: 0)
;track_motorx 0

# Set motorx reverse (default: 0)
;track_motorx_reverse 0

# Motor number for y-axis (default: 0)
;track_motory 1

# Set motory reverse (default: 0)
;track_motory_reverse 0

# Maximum value on x-axis (default: 0)
;track_maxx 200

# Minimum value on x-axis (default: 0)
;track_minx 50

# Maximum value on y-axis (default: 0)
;track_maxy 200

# Minimum value on y-axis (default: 0)
;track_miny 50

# Center value on x-axis (default: 0)
;track_homex 128

# Center value on y-axis (default: 0)
;track_homey 128

# ID of an iomojo camera if used (default: 0)
track_iomojo_id 0

# Angle in degrees the camera moves per step on the X-axis
# with auto-track (default: 10)
# Currently only used with pwc type cameras
track_step_angle_x 10

# Angle in degrees the camera moves per step on the Y-axis
# with auto-track (default: 10)
# Currently only used with pwc type cameras
track_step_angle_y 10

# Delay to wait for after tracking movement as number
# of picture frames (default: 10)
track_move_wait 10

# Speed to set the motor to (stepper motor option) (default: 255)
track_speed 255

# Number of steps to make (stepper motor option) (default: 40)
track_stepsize 40


############################################################
# External Commands, Warnings and Logging:
# You can use conversion specifiers for the on_xxxx commands
# %Y = year, %m = month, %d = date,
# %H = hour, %M = minute, %S = second,
# %v = event, %q = frame number, %t = thread (camera) number,
# %D = changed pixels, %N = noise level,
# %i and %J = width and height of motion area,
# %K and %L = X and Y coordinates of motion center
# %C = value defined by text_event
# %f = filename with full path
# %n = number indicating filetype
# Both %f and %n are only defined for on_picture_save,
# on_movie_start and on_movie_end
# Quotation marks round string are allowed.
############################################################

# Do not sound beeps when detecting motion (default: on)
# Note: Motion never beeps when running in daemon mode.
quiet on

# Command to be executed when an event starts. (default: none)
# An event starts at first motion detected after a period of no motion defined by event_gap
; on_event_start value

# Command to be executed when an event ends after a period of no motion
# (default: none). The period of no motion is defined by option event_gap.
; on_event_end value

# Command to be executed when a picture (.ppm|.jpg) is saved (default: none)
# To give the filename as an argument to a command append it with %f
; on_picture_save value

# Command to be executed when a motion frame is detected (default: none)
; on_motion_detected value

# Command to be executed when motion in a predefined area is detected
# Check option 'area_detect'.   (default: none)
; on_area_detected value

# Command to be executed when a movie file (.mpg|.avi) is created. (default: none)
# To give the filename as an argument to a command append it with %f
; on_movie_start value

# Command to be executed when a movie file (.mpg|.avi) is closed. (default: none)
# To give the filename as an argument to a command append it with %f
; on_movie_end value

# Command to be executed when a camera can't be opened or if it is lost
# NOTE: There is situations when motion don't detect a lost camera!
# It depends on the driver, some drivers dosn't detect a lost camera at all
# Some hangs the motion thread. Some even hangs the PC! (default: none)
; on_camera_lost value

#####################################################################
# Common Options for database features.
# Options require database options to be active also.
#####################################################################

# Log to the database when creating motion triggered picture file  (default: on)
; sql_log_picture on

# Log to the database when creating a snapshot image file (default: on)
; sql_log_snapshot on

# Log to the database when creating motion triggered movie file (default: off)
; sql_log_movie off

# Log to the database when creating timelapse movies file (default: off)
; sql_log_timelapse off

# SQL query string that is sent to the database
# Use same conversion specifiers has for text features
# Additional special conversion specifiers are
# %n = the number representing the file_type
# %f = filename with full path
# Default value:
# Create tables :
##
# Mysql
# CREATE TABLE security (camera int, filename char(80) not null, frame int, file_type int, time_stamp timestamp(14), event_time_stamp timestamp(14));
#
# Postgresql
# CREATE TABLE security (camera int, filename char(80) not null, frame int, file_type int, time_stamp timestamp without time zone, event_time_stamp timestamp without time zone);
#
# insert into security(camera, filename, frame, file_type, time_stamp, text_event) values('%t', '%f', '%q', '%n', '%Y-%m-%d %T', '%C')
; sql_query insert into security(camera, filename, frame, file_type, time_stamp, event_time_stamp) values('%t', '%f', '%q', '%n', '%Y-%m-%d %T', '%C')


############################################################
# Database Options
############################################################

# database type : mysql, postgresql, sqlite3 (default : not defined)
; database_type value

# database to log to (default: not defined)
; database_dbname value

# The host on which the database is located (default: localhost)
; database_host value

# User account name for database (default: not defined)
; database_user value

# User password for database (default: not defined)
; database_password value

# Port on which the database is located
#  mysql 3306 , postgresql 5432 (default: not defined)
; database_port value

############################################################
# Database Options For SQLite3
############################################################

# SQLite3 database (file path) (default: not defined)
; sqlite3_db value



############################################################
# Video Loopback Device (vloopback project)
############################################################

# Output images to a video4linux loopback device
# The value '-' means next available (default: not defined)
; video_pipe value

# Output motion images to a video4linux loopback device
# The value '-' means next available (default: not defined)
; motion_video_pipe value


##############################################################
# Thread config files - One for each camera.
# Except if only one camera - You only need this config file.
# If you have more than one camera you MUST define one thread
# config file for each camera in addition to this config file.
##############################################################

# Remember: If you have more than one camera you must have one
# thread file for each camera. E.g. 2 cameras requires 3 files:
# This motion.conf file AND thread1.conf and thread2.conf.
# Only put the options that are unique to each camera in the
# thread config files.
; thread /etc/motion/thread1.conf
; thread /etc/motion/thread2.conf
; thread /etc/motion/thread3.conf
; thread /etc/motion/thread4.conf



Extra
  • Inserimento in /etc/fstab del mount di una chiavetta usb e permission
Nell'fstab ho inserito il mount di una periferica usb dove vado a salvarmi i file video della videocamera.
*la partizione è una fat, l'uid e il gid sono dell'utente/gruppo motion, ho dato un'umask 007 in modo che altri utenti dello stesso gruppo motion possano leggere scrivere nella cartella:

/dev/sda1       /mnt/usb        vfat    auto,owner,rw,umask=007,uid=109,gid=114 0       0


Struttura directory chiavetta usb:

/mnt/usb $ du
134920  ./Videosorveglianza/backups <----- qua ci piazzo i file che ho salvato anche in dropbox (vedere cap 4)
134936  ./Videosorveglianza<----- nella root Videosorveglianza ci metto i file che creo e che ho ancora da salvare in Dropbox, una volta salvati li sposto in backups
134952  .

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Passo 2 - Cancellazione dei file vecchi da usb
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Visto che per la videosorveglianza ho utilizzato un'antica chiavetta usb da 512MB ho il problema del suo riempimento...
Ovviamente potrei cancellare a mano i files obsoleti, ma la memoria a volte m'inganna, quindi rischierei di incappare in un disk full. Quindi ho creato uno script apposito.

Posizioniamoci nella direcotry dove creaimo i nostri script  (io li piazzo sempre sotto la /opt/scripts) e creiamo il file motion_svuota_disco_sh:

cd /opt/scripts/
touch motion_svuota_disco_sh
chmod +x motion_svuota_disco_sh
vi motion_svuota_disco_sh



Allora, premesso che:

  • la chiavetta usb è il device /dev/sda (sda1 è la partizione fat per la cronaca, così posso staccarla e leggerla su win senza menate)
  • il filesystem è strutturato così:
/Videosorveglianza/backups
/Videosorveglianza
/.
In Videosorveglianza/backup si sono i file che ho già trasferito su Dropbox (è che quindi posso cancellare per primi)
In Videosorveglianza troverò i file creati al momento dalla cam (non sono ancora stati backuppati, quindi sono da cancellare per ultimi)
  • nello script ho 4 variabili:
FILESYSTEM: il filesystem sul quale eseguire il df
CAPACITY: valore massimo della capacità del filesystem, dopodichè, se superato cancella dati dalla dir BACKUPS
CAPACITY_ROOT: valore massimo della capacità del filesystem, dopodichè cancella anche dalla dir VIDEODIR, ho messo un valore superiore a quello di capacity nel caso io avessi cancellato dalla dir di backups qualche file e contemporanemante registrassi un video, non mi vada a cancellare dalla videodir rischiando così di perdere nuovi video
BACKUPS: directory dove tengo i backup dei video che ho trasferito su Dropbox
VIDEODIR: directory dove tengo i nuovi file video non ancora passati su Dropbox (o altro ovviamente)

Lo script sottostante non fa altro che ciclare 2 volte; un ciclo che passa i file in /Videosorveglianza/backups e il secondo quelli in /Videosorveglianza.
Ogni volta che cicla libera il file più vecchio, cancellando a ritroso finchè non raggiunge il valore di soglia, in particolare il primo ciclo è fatto in modo che cancelli dalla dir Videosorveglianza/backup fino a quando il comando df non esce con output inferiore all'80% di occupazione. Nel secondo la soglia è a 90% (l'ho tenuto più alto nel caso in cui stessi ancora registrando e avessi un'occupazione al limite, rischierei di cancellare un file "fresco"), l'ho fatto apposta nel caso in cui il Raspberry non abbia accessibilità a Dropbox, in quel caso una volta uscito dal primo ciclo (dove avrà svuotato la dir backup) passa al secondo seguendo così una "gerarchia" nel cancellare i files.

#!/bin/bash
FILESYSTEM=/dev/sda1 # or whatever filesystem to monitor
CAPACITY=80 # delete if FS is over 80% of usage
CAPACITY_ROOT=90 # delete if FS is over 90% of usage
BACKUPS=/mnt/usb/Videosorveglianza/backups
VIDEODIR=/mnt/usb/Videosorveglianza

# Proceed if filesystem capacity is over than the value of CAPACITY (using df POSIX syntax)
# using [ instead of [[ for better error handling.
while ([ $(df -P $FILESYSTEM | awk '{ gsub("%",""); capacity = $5 }; END { print capacity }') -gt $CAPACITY ] && [ ${#BACKUPS[@]} -gt 0 ])
do
    cd $BACKUPS
    ls -t | tail -1 | xargs -d '\n' rm
done
while ([ $(df -P $FILESYSTEM | awk '{ gsub("%",""); capacity = $5 }; END { print capacity }') -gt $CAPACITY_ROOT ] && [ ${#BACKUPS[@]} -gt 0 ])
do
    cd $VIDEODIR
    ls -t | tail -1 | xargs -d '\n' rm
done


Infine solito giro di crontab (occhio sempre alle permission e allo user con il quale si esegue lo script):

crontab -e



ogni 21 minuti lancio lo script /opt/scripts/motion_svuota_disco_sh:

# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
#
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
# indicating with different fields when the task will be run
# and what command to run for the task
#
# To define the time you can provide concrete values for
# minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon),
# and day of week (dow) or use '*' in these fields (for 'any').#
# Notice that tasks will be started based on the cron's system
# daemon's notion of time and timezones.
#
# Output of the crontab jobs (including errors) is sent through
# email to the user the crontab file belongs to (unless redirected).
#
# For example, you can run a backup of all your user accounts
# at 5 a.m every week with:
# 0 5 * * 1 tar -zcf /var/backups/home.tgz /home/
#
# For more information see the manual pages of crontab(5) and cron(8)
#
# m h  dom mon dow   command
*/4 * * * * /opt/scripts/motion_on_off_if_wifi.sh
*/21 * * * * /opt/scripts/motion_svuota_disco_sh


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Passo 3 - Attivazione/disattivazione presenza
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Una grande rottura a mio avviso è attivare/disattivare la videocamera di sorveglianza via software/hardware/corrente elettrica ecc ecc ecc...
Quindi ho pensato di attivare o disattivare in automatico la videocamera tramite uno script che rileva se il mio cell connesso in wifi è presente o meno nella mia rete.
Direi che per me questo metodo è ultracomodo, per ciò devo essere nella condizione di:
  • aver assegnato un ip fisso al cellulare o l'ap che glielo assegni statico.
  • far attenzione all'area wifi

Allora iniziamo, andiamo come sempre nella cartella degli script, per me è la /opt/scripts e creiamo il file:

cd /opt/scripts/
touch motion_on_off_if_wifi.sh
chmod +x motion_on_off_if_wifi.sh



editiamo il file creato:

vi motion_on_off_if_wifi.sh



*ovviamente X.X.X.X è l'ip fisso assegnato alla scheda wifi del telefono, consiglio comunque di usare il nomehost.
**scrivo in un file di log /var/log/motion_on_off.log

#!/bin/bash

# -q quiet
# -c nb of pings to perform

ping -q -c5 X.X.X.X > /dev/null

if [ $? -eq 0 ]
then
   if (pgrep -x "motion")
     then
       sudo sh -c 'echo "$(date) Sei in casa, disattivo la videocamera di sorveglianza" >> /var/log/motion_on_off.log'
       sudo /etc/init.d/motion stop
   fi
else
  if pgrep -x "motion" > /dev/null
    then
      echo > /dev/null
    else
      sudo sh -c 'echo "$(date) Non sei in casa, attivo la videocamera di sorveglianza" >> /var/log/motion_on_off.log'
      sudo /etc/init.d/motion start
  fi
fi


Editiamo il crontab a nostro piacimento, (io faccio eseguire questo script ogni 2 minuti):

crontab -e



# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
#
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
# indicating with different fields when the task will be run
# and what command to run for the task
#
# To define the time you can provide concrete values for
# minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon),
# and day of week (dow) or use '*' in these fields (for 'any').#
# Notice that tasks will be started based on the cron's system
# daemon's notion of time and timezones.
#
# Output of the crontab jobs (including errors) is sent through
# email to the user the crontab file belongs to (unless redirected).
#
# For example, you can run a backup of all your user accounts
# at 5 a.m every week with:
# 0 5 * * 1 tar -zcf /var/backups/home.tgz /home/
#
# For more information see the manual pages of crontab(5) and cron(8)
#
# m h  dom mon dow   command
*/4 * * * * /opt/scripts/motion_on_off_if_wifi.sh


Ultima verifica, vediamo se crontab viene eseguito:

crontab -l



---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Passo 4 - configurazione dropbox
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Andiamo sul sicuro se abbiamo una copia dei nostri filmati da qualche altra parte, Dropbox è la souluzione che ho adottato. Tutto ciò nel caso in cui ci venga manomessa la Videocamera o ci venga tolta la chiavetta usb.
Gli unici prerequisiti sono:
  1. un account Dropbox
  2. ovviamente una connessione internet
  3. un Raspberry con wifi/rete attiva.

Configurazione di dropbox_uploader.sh

Per prima cosa scarichiamoci lo script di Andrea Fabrizi direttamente dal suo github, quindi posizionandoci nella cartella dei nostri scripts e lanciamo il comando curl:

cd /opt/scripts/
curl "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/andreafabrizi/Dropbox-Uploader/master/dropbox_uploader.sh" -o dropbox_uploader.sh



per ulteriori info riguardo lo script:https://github.com/andreafabrizi/Dropbox-Uploader.

ok una volta fatto avremo lo script sotto la nostra /opt/scripts.
Come da note diamo l'eseguibilità allo script ed eventualmente i permessi necessari:

chmod +x dropbox_uploader.sh



ora andiamo su Dropbox e dopo aver effetuato il login creiamo una nostra app:

https://www.dropbox.com/developers/apps

Basta cliccare su:
"Create App"
---Si aprono varie checkbox
Checcare "Dropbox API"
Checcare "App Folder"
Dare un nome alla app
"Create App"

Bene, ora che abbiamo creato l'app, lanciamo dal nostro Raspberry lo script di Andrea:

cd /opt/scripts/
./dropbox_uploader.sh



non appena ce lo chiede diamo l'app key e l'app secret che troviamo nella pagina https dell'app di Dropbox, ci verrà chiesto se è una app folder/full, diamo folder.
Controlliamo che sia tutto ok e infine yes per proseguire,
A questo punto diamo il link del token che propone lo script in pasto a firefox e dovremo essere a posto.

Ora che abbiamo configurato correttamente l'uploader, possiamo passare alla fase successiva.

Upload files su Dropbox

Posizionandoci nella dir degli scripts andiamo a creare un file eseguibile dal nome "dropbox_job.sh":

cd /opt/scripts/
touch dropbox_job.sh
chmod +x dropbox_job.sh
vi dropbox_job.sh



Editiamo il file in questo modo:

#!/bin/bash
FILES=/mnt/usb/Videosorveglianza/*
BACKUP_FOLDER=/mnt/usb/Videosorveglianza/backups
exec &>/tmp/my.log
if [ -d $BACKUP_FOLDER ];
then
        echo "Found $BACKUP_FOLDER."
else
        mkdir $BACKUP_FOLDER
fi
echo "Looking for files..."
for f in $FILES
do
        if [ -f $f ];
        then
          echo "Processing $f file..."
          # take action on each file. $f store current file name
          /opt/scripts/dropbox_uploader.sh upload $f /
          echo "Dropbox upload finished with exit code = $?"
          if [ $? -eq 0 ]
          then
             mv $f $BACKUP_FOLDER/
          else
             echo "Could not upload $f"
          fi
        fi
done
echo "Done uploading."


Bene, questo script non fa altro che controllare se c'è una directory chiamata backups sotto la root della dir Videosorveglianza e nel caso non ci fosse la crea, successivamente per tutti i files che trova sotto la root effettua l'upload degli stessi su Dropbox e li sposta nella cartella /Videosorveglianza/backups.

Editiamo infine il crontab in modo da far eseguire lo script costantemente:

crontab -e



# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
#
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
# indicating with different fields when the task will be run
# and what command to run for the task
#
# To define the time you can provide concrete values for
# minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon),
# and day of week (dow) or use '*' in these fields (for 'any').#
# Notice that tasks will be started based on the cron's system
# daemon's notion of time and timezones.
#
# Output of the crontab jobs (including errors) is sent through
# email to the user the crontab file belongs to (unless redirected).
#
# For example, you can run a backup of all your user accounts
# at 5 a.m every week with:
# 0 5 * * 1 tar -zcf /var/backups/home.tgz /home/
#
# For more information see the manual pages of crontab(5) and cron(8)
#
# m h  dom mon dow   command
*/4 * * * * /opt/scripts/motion_on_off_if_wifi.sh
*/21 * * * * /opt/scripts/motion_svuota_disco_sh
* * * * * /opt/scripts/dropbox_job.sh


Cancellare i files vecchi da Dropbox

Ovviamente Dropbox ad un certo punto si riempirà (al momento il max limit di un utente free è di 2GB).
Quindi ho creato uno script che cancella i files vecchi di 2 mesi.

Prerequisiti:
  1. i files debbono possedere questa nomenclatura:
         04-20160416102835.avi
         ovvero un progressivo a 2 cifre, un "-", poi tutto attaccato l'anno (2016) mese (04) giorno (16) ora (10) minuti (28) secondi (35)
         quindi ho dovuto modificare lo script di Andrea in modo che mi faccia il list dei files, senza altro output se non del solo nome.

Con "vi" modifichiamo la riga:


.
..
...
            #For each entry, printing files...
            while read -r line; do

                local FILE=${line%:*}
                local META=${line##*:}
                local TYPE=${META%;*}
                local SIZE=${META#*;}

                #Removing unneeded /
                FILE=${FILE##*/}

                if [[ $TYPE == "false" ]]; then
                    FILE=$(echo -e "$FILE")
                    $PRINTF "%-${padding}s %s\n" "$FILE"
                fi
...
..
.


Verifichiamo l'output corretto:

./dropbox_uploader.sh list
 > Listing "/"... DONE
01-20160314013737.avi
01-20160314081028.avi
01-20160315201642.avi
01-20160316052031.avi
...
..
.



Ottimo, ora creo lo script che effettua la cancellazione dei file che contengono nel loro stesso nome la data più vecchia di 2 mesi fa (questo perchè se sono al primo del mese, mi cancello tutti i filmati partendo dal giorno prima):

cd /opt/scripts/
touch dropbox_job_delete_old.sh
chmod +x dropbox_job_delete_old.sh
vi dropbox_job_delete_old.sh



#!/bin/bash
dropboxfiles=($(/opt/scripts/dropbox_uploader.sh list / | grep `date --date="2 month ago" +%Y%m`))
for i in "${dropboxfiles[@]}"
do
  /opt/scripts/dropbox_uploader.sh delete /$i
done


Infine inseriamo lo script sempre in crontab:

crontab -e



# Edit this file to introduce tasks to be run by cron.
#
# Each task to run has to be defined through a single line
# indicating with different fields when the task will be run
# and what command to run for the task
#
# To define the time you can provide concrete values for
# minute (m), hour (h), day of month (dom), month (mon),
# and day of week (dow) or use '*' in these fields (for 'any').#
# Notice that tasks will be started based on the cron's system
# daemon's notion of time and timezones.
#
# Output of the crontab jobs (including errors) is sent through
# email to the user the crontab file belongs to (unless redirected).
#
# For example, you can run a backup of all your user accounts
# at 5 a.m every week with:
# 0 5 * * 1 tar -zcf /var/backups/home.tgz /home/
#
# For more information see the manual pages of crontab(5) and cron(8)
#
# m h  dom mon dow   command
*/4 * * * * /opt/scripts/motion_on_off_if_wifi.sh
*/21 * * * * /opt/scripts/motion_svuota_disco_sh
* * * * * /opt/scripts/dropbox_job.sh
* * */1 * * /opt/scripts/dropbox_job_delete_old.sh


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